"I have held up a light in the obscurity of Philosophy, which will be seen centuries after I am dead. It will be seen amidst the erection of Tombs, Theatres, Foundations, Temples, Orders and Fraternities for nobility and obedience — the establishment of good laws as an example to the World. For I am not raising a Capitol or Pyramid to the Pride of men, but laying a foundation in the human understanding for a holy Temple after he model of the World. For my memory I leave it to Men's charitable speeches, to foreign Nations and the next Ages, and to my own Country after some Time has elapsed." -- Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning (1605), Bk II.

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Join me to explore the hidden tenets of arranged alignments of architecture and art. Structures as diverse as the Great Pyramid, Baalbek, The Tower of the Winds, Hagia Sopia, Basilica San Vitale, The Dome of the Rock, St. Peter's Square, Gisors, The Newport Tower, Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest, and the Georgia Guidestones all may have a common origin.

Three reproductions of the Tower of the Winds in England help to display how this age old value is viewed through time. Along the way many legends and myths associated with the Holy Grail and other relics are examined.

Treasure myths such as the Oak Island Legend and The Beale Treasure Legend may have a common origin and hidden meaning. The tale of The Bruton Parish Church Vault (a.k.a. "Bacon's Vault) may also be a copy of an already existent mystery at Stirling Castle.

The Tower of the Winds in Athens: The Axis Mundi of the Greek world

 Please also see my video on this subject at the bottom of the page.

The Tower of the Winds in Athens Greece may be the archetype used to design the directional attributes of St. Peter’s Square of the Vatican.  This beautiful marble tower was built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus This relatively small structure was located in the Agora of Rome just north of the Acropolis. Indeed the Acropolis and Parthenon are included in the Templum established by the Tower of Winds when it was constructed in or around 200 B.C.  Other accounts have the tower constructed in 50 B.C.

The Tower of the Winds also functioned as an Axis Mundi.  The directional information recorded in its true north orientation also served as a large directional compass on the face of the earth.  The tower’s octagonal shape can be used to create azimuths on the globe that lead the way to many places that are significant to this era of Greek culture. By using the pole star or a magnetic compass The Tower of the Winds was oriented to the true north pole of the earth.

The Tower of the Winds (TOTW) has an octagonal plan that is meant to represent the eight major points of the compass. It is oriented perfectly with the True North pole.  This marble structure is nearly 40’ in height and 26’ in diameter.  Each facet of its octagonal shape is adorned with a frieze depicting one of the eight deities of the wind:  Boreas (N), Kaikias (NE), Eurus (E), Apeliotes (SE), Notus (S), Livas (SW), Zephyrus (W), and Skiron (NW). 

In Greek mythology there are also eight additional wind deities that comprise the compass points in between the primary points for a total of sixteen.  The same deities were later lauded in the Roman pantheon with different names. The naming and denotation of the directions with markers at the Tower of the Winds was later emulated at the St. Peter’s by the installation of the “windrose” markers in relation to the obelisk at the center of the plaza.

The Tower of the Winds also had a sundial on each facet of the building allowing those in the Agora or marketplace to see the time. In effect the TOTW was an early form of the city plaza clock tower. The tower also served as the official time keeping device of the city.  In addition to its function as a sun dial/clock the interior of the structure housed a clepsydra or water clock. 

The clepsydra or literally “water thief” had been invented by the Egyptians hundreds of years earlier and this is undoubtedly where the Greeks obtained this technology. The clepsydra may have aided the Egyptians in determining the shape and size of the earth itself. It may have enabled them to figure longitude in a much less complex way than previously. This is a technology that may have been lost or obscured due to it being valued in an occult manner.

In addition to its time keeping function the Tower of the Winds may have also contained an amazing geared mechanism that also recorded the orbits of the planets around the sun as well as the cycles of the moon.  Many researchers postulate that the famous Antikythera device was once housed in the Tower of the Winds. It is theorized that the Antikythera device was also powered with hydraulic pressure in a similar manner to the clepsydra. Archaeologists estimate that the Antikythera device was produced between 150 and 100 B.C. matching the possible construction dates of the tower itself.

The Antikythera device is but one of many highly technical devices that were produced in antiquity.  This type of technology may have been much more common in ancient times than most people would believe today. Many times technology such as this would be a hidden or occult concept that would be used to the advantage of those who controlled it and not shared with the public at large.

This factor may have prevented knowledge from being recorded for all to see. In turn some of these facts would be lost to time or destroyed when that culture declined or disappeared. A single event such as the destruction of the ancient library of Alexandria could create the loss of thousands of years of knowledge and learning. Factors such as this may be why many forms of ancient technology are attributed to aliens or UFO’s.

Often technology such as this would be used to create previously unseen effects in order to awe the public. Many times technology would be used to create amazing effects in temples and places of worship. During this era the general public would have no concept at all of math or science. These disciplines were dominated by a priesthood that was as concerned with occult and spiritual aspects which may have clouded the line between magic and science.

This is a phenomenon may still be at work in today’s world. In short the first scientists of the world were likely priests who would have seen their knowledge and inventions as divine and mysterious. Indeed it was cloistered knowledge handed down from the mystery schools of ancient Egypt and Sumeria that was deemed useful enough to keep secret for the use of a chosen few.  These early priesthoods may have intentionally deceived the public in order to keep them faithful to a particular religion or cult.

One example of hidden technology that may have been used to create the Tower of Winds is the magnetic compass. History tells us that the Chinese invented the compass in the ninth or tenth century A.D.  An examination of history reveals that the compass may have been in use much earlier than this period. This may have been the method by which Andronicus was able to orient the structure to the true North Pole instead of the magnetic pole. If he had a compass he could have measured the angle between the magnetic pole and the pole star and compensated for the difference. The pole star may have also been used to align the structure without a compass. In any case knowledge of the pole star would have made a magnetic compass more useful.

This infers knowledge of the difference between the true north pole (upon which the earth rotates) and the magnetic pole (which a compass points to). The difference between the magnetic and true North Pole is different at each point on earth. Modern compasses can be adjusted for the difference between the two poles so they always point to true north. This may have been possible in the ancient world but would also suggest that they knew the difference between the two poles and the location of the magnetic pole.

Material evidence from ancient Egypt indicates a well developed knowledge and use of the naturally magnetic rocks lodestone or magnetite. Material evidence also indicates that the Etruscans were aware of the sixteen significant points of the compass as early as 600B.C. and may have had use of the compass.

Lodestone is a naturally occurring magnet that will point to the magnetic poles of the earth if suspended in the air or liquid. There are instances of lodestone being used in temples in order to create the illusion of objects floating or moving on their own. This use of lodestone is an example of a technology being used to manipulate the spirituality of the masses. If this material was used in this manner than we may also assume that they were aware of the directional attributes of it and may also have used additional technological developments in an occult manner.

The value of the concept of time and space is illustrated in the directional and timekeeping attributes of the tower. All of this evidence points to the tower’s possible use as a directional device that may have been used in planning and orientation of structures far away.

If azimuths are drawn on the globe extending from the tower in the directions indicated by the facets of its octagonal plan some amazing places significant to Greek culture and history may be sighted. First of all some of the more significant sites in Athens itself are oriented with regard to the Tower of Winds.

Notus god of the South wind:

The Acropolis itself is located due south of the tower of winds. The Tower of the Winds may have been built to replace a similar structure on the Acropolis itself. A line drawn at a southern azimuth on the globe touches the northeast corner of the Parthenon itself. This complex resembles the temple mounts of the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean as well as some of the Mycenaean fortresses nearby. This temple complex was likely a natural hill or elevated area that was walled and fortified until it resembled the platform it is today. The linear orientation of the hill of the Parthenon itself may have dictated the orientation of the building that were placed atop it.

The most famous structures atop it were built before the Tower of the Winds in the fourth and fifth centuries B.C. It is possible that the Tower of the Winds was built later to reflect the Axis of the Acropolis. The Clepsydra within the tower gets its name from a small spring on the northwest side of the Acropolis which is said to have supplied the water for use in the towers clock.

This azimuth also leads to the current location of the Athens Airport continuing the tradition of building important structures with regard to a central axis.

This southerly azimuth also supplies another link to the tower’s use as a time keeping device.  This line passes just about fifteen miles to the east of the island of Antikythera. This is the location where the Antikythera device was discovered by sponge divers in 1900-01. If not intentional this is an amazing correlation. This point is also crossed by an azimuth that extends from the northwest facet of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Antikythera device was found at an intersection of lines generated from Axis Great Pyamid and Axis Tower of the Winds! This line from the TOTW also extends to the isle of Crete.

It would be interesting to know how the Antikythera device came to rest at the bottom of the sea at such an even orientation to the place where it used to be? A place designed in part to point the way to places significant to that culture. A far flung theory might involve the fact that it was intentionally placed where it was found with the tower giving directional clues as to its whereabouts.

Zephyrus god of the West wind:

An azimuth extended to the west reveals that a major portion of the later Roman Forum was oriented right on the line created. The building was oriented at this angle with regard to the Tower of Winds. This may be inferred in that the plan of the city itself and many of the other monuments in the city are not oriented with regard to the tower. This portion of the Roman Forum seems to have been intentionally built to reflect this direction. This may be representative of an occult knowledge and value of the axis created by the tower. Earlier Greek buildings didn’t seen to be associated in this manner. Interesting that the Romans chose to orient their forum with the old Greek Axis. This is a possible form of respect and value.

The western azimuth also crosses the northern portion of the Mycenaean island or peninsula and Sicily.  As the line transects the Mediterranean it comes within a few miles of the ancient city of Carthage.  This may be an important association.  During the period of and prior to the tower’s construction Carthage and Alexandria may have been the most powerful cities on the rim of the Mediterranean Sea. This association may be fortuitous but also may indicate some hidden connection between the two cultures. The Axis of Baalbek, Lebanon also points to the city of Carthage if not the war harbor itself.

The westerly azimuth exits the continent of Africa at Casablanca, Morocco.

Skiron god of the Northwest wind:

The northwest azimuth extending from the Tower of the Winds crosses northwest Greece and the western Balkans. It then extends to Venice, Italy and crosses the main island that comprises that city. Venice is also pointed to by the Axis Mundi of the Vatican, St. Peter’s Square. The line continues across Europe transecting Zurich and Reims. 

Next it crosses the English Channel and makes a very astounding association. This line extends directly to the earthen circle of Avebury, England. This is an amazing correlation.

Avebury may also serve as the Axis Mundi of what is known as the St. Michaels ley line that transects Britain from southwest to northeast and includes many important sites aligned. Avebury was constructed near 2600 B.C. long before the Axis of Athens was created. This may be indicative of a knowledge and value of Avebury as an axis by the ancient Greeks. If true this may support the many theories that state much of western culture sprang from the Neolithic British Isles.

This may be the earliest representation of the movement of a time keeping Axis on the face of the earth. It is remotely possible that Athens and later the TOTW was placed due to its spatial relationship with Avebury!  Examination of Avebury may reveal that it was meant to represent a hexagonal axis mundi. This may fit the paradigm set forth that states that early directional systems were based on the hexagon and later on the octagon. The Axis Mundi of Avebury and its other associated directions will be examined in more detail in the next chapter. 

KaiKias god of the Northeast wind:

This Northeast trending azimuth creates a line that extends to two of the most important military confrontations in Greek history. First it transects across the site of the recent 2004 summer games in Athens. It then extends to the city of Marathon, Greece. The battle of Marathon was an epic battle against the Persians in 490 B.C. The sport of Marathon running is named for this city and commemorates a messenger or runner who delivered news of the Greek victory to Athens by running the entire way there and then promptly dropping dead from over exertion. The battle of Marathon is considered to be an event that saved Greece from Persian occupation and allowed them to develop their culture into the democratic and intellectual traits it is known for.

The ancient city of Troy leys along the same azimuth that transects Marathon. Here is another epic contest between the Greeks and Persians.  The winner of this battle would now control all of what is western Turkey today. The story of the battle of Troy is famous for both the tale of Helen of Troy and the Trojan Horse. The later discovery of the site by Deutsch archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann was one of the major events of modern archaeology.  Schliemann’s study and use of ordered excavation techniques helped to define the discipline of archaeology in its modern form.

Both Marathon and Troy may have occurred due to their spatial relationship with Acropolis. Later the Tower of the Winds may have been built to reflect an axis that was once atop the temple platform but later moved below at close proximity. Moving the axis a short distance would not significantly change its targets as long as it was still oriented correctly to the true North Pole. Undoubtedly the Acropolis stood as the axis prior to the construction of the Tower of Winds.

Eurus god of the East wind:

Due east of the Axis of the Tower of the winds is the small Greek city of Artemis. This transect passes right over this city on the eastern extent of mainland Greece. Continuing the Artemis theme the line transects across the Aegean sea to what is considered one of the ancient seven wonders of the world. The ruins of the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, Turkey are considered to have once been one of the most awe inspiring places on the face of the earth. The planners of this azimuth placed a city in Greece named for this goddess in line with regard to the TOTW and the later Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. Ephesus is considered one of the most important cities of the ancient world. Ephesus was once one of the largest cities of antiquity and was part of the Ionian League; a dodecapolis comprised of a confederation of twelve cities.

ESE: To Rhodes

The ESE trending line created by the TOTW leads to the site of the first modern Olympic Games held in 1896 in Athens. A tradition of situating the Olympic Games on azimuths from an established axis may exist. Both the Summer 2012 Games and the 2014 Winter Games are being held on lines extending from the Axis of Baalbek, Lebanon. The ancient Greek site of the original Olympics in Archaeia Olympia is located on a transect produced from the northwest facet of the Great Pyramid of Giza. A giant statue of Zeus similar to that of Palias Athena was located there and was also thought to be one of the seven ancient wonders of the world.

Next the line transects just a few miles south of the City of Rhodes on the Isle of Rhodes. This city was home to another of the seven wonders of the ancient world.  The Colossus of Rhodes was a giant Bronze likeness of Titan Helios. Many liken the construction of the Statue of Liberty in New York City to this sculpture. The Colossus was said to have been big enough to straddle the harbor entrance to Rhodes yet still allow ships to enter. In reality the statue was located in the hills above the city. Amazing that two of the seven wonders of the ancient world are located within the templum of the Tower of the Winds!

This azimuth transects to within ten miles of the ancient city of Paphos, Cyprus that had an extensive Temple complex dedicated to Athena/Aphrodite.  The temple there was said to have a black stone that was covered with an omphalos at the center of the temple. Muslims may have a value of Paphos.

Strangely this transect passes through Lebanon without crossing a significant site. It does continue into Saudi Arabia and does come to a very interesting place that has a limited amount of information available as to its use or function.

Along this azimuth is a large octagonal modern city in the middle of the Saudi desert.  The entire plan of this city is leyed out like a geomantic wonderland. The street plan is even octagonal and radiates from a central axis. On Google Earth there is no name in English for this location. It appears to be a military base or some similar facility. One of the photos visible on Google Earth says “KIK assembly hall.” No reference has been found for the “KIK. This octagonal city may serve as an Axis Mundi itself.  The octagon here is not oriented at the same angle as the line coming from Athens.

Apeliotes god of the Southeast wind:

The southeast trending azimuth from the Tower of the Winds crosses a large amount of open water on its way to Egypt.  This line enters the Nile delta at about the point the river flows into the Mediterranean. It then extends to the area of ancient Avaris, Egypt. Avaris may have been home to the Hyksos culture of ancient Egypt that may have spawned the faith of Judaism. 

Avaris does have a link to ancient Greece. It is thought that many of the inhabitants were also of Minoan descent or that Avaris had a trading relationship with these peoples. Minoan culture was from the isle of Crete and later may have heavily influenced Greek culture.  Examples of Minoan material culture have been found in significant amounts at the site of Avaris.

The Minoan culture was known to value a symbol known as the Labarys that the Labarum symbol of Constantine may have evolved from.  The Minoan form of this symbol may have descended from the Egyptian symbols for “place of the ruler.”  The Sumerian version of this symbol means “heavens gate.” A hidden form of this symbol is the fasci or bundled sticks with an axe head. This symbol (the fasci) has become synonymous with the philosophy of fascism.

Authors Note:  More on the way.  I am researching the possible links to Avebury and  ancient Britain. Avebury does work as an Axis!  Thank you.  

The Tower of the Winds video: