Chevalier St. George/D’Anville expedition
Who was the Chevalier St. George? 11/14/2018
The Chevalier St. George was a French naval captain who was captured in the Battle of Cape Finesterre by Admiral Anson of Shugborough Hall. This is a different Chevalier St. George than the famous African Frenchman of the same name who was born in 1745. The Chevalier St. George was famous for his chivalric surrender to Admiral Anson himself in which he presented the Admiral with his sword personally. It is possible if not likely that the Chevalier St. George was a Scottish or Irish Jacobite exile who was fighting against the British in the French Navy. There are many instances of this having happened in the era during which the Battle of Cape Finesterre occurred.
The Battle of Cape Finesterre also supplies us with another very surprising link to a storied family that had a large impact on the development of French Acadia and another famous mystery on a par with Rennes le Chateau. Another French naval officer named Jean Jacques Blaise d’Abbadie was also captured from the same ship as the Chevalier St. George. D’Abbadie would go on to to later be the governor of French Louisiana prior to the time the United States obtained it. Both men were officers aboard the L’Invincible that was captured by Admiral Anson at that time. The d’Abbadie family has a long and storied association with the exiled Jacobite court of James II. In addition the very same family is also responsible for the creation of Chateau Abbadia near Hendaye, France that is sometimes referred to as the “Rosslyn Chapel” of France.
Part of the mystery of Chateau Abbadia includes what is known of as the Great Cyclic Cross of Hendaye. This simple monument is located in the courtyard of the St. Vincent Chapel there. The cross displays what may be considered millennial themes that are associated with a coming world catastrophe and was likely created in the late seventeenth century. One of the more interesting aspects of the cross is its inclusion in a strange book entitled “Mystery of the Cathedrals” written by the enigmatic individual known of only as Fulcanelli. Chateau Abbaddia also known of as Chateau d’Abbadie was created by famous Ethiopian explorer Antoine d’Abbadie who was directly related to Blaise d’Abbadie which emanated from Audaux, France branch of the family.
The d’Abbadie family’s association with the Jacobite cause may have come via their associations with James II directly. When James finally escaped from England he was even said to have been aided by a man referred to as his “back stairs page” Abbadie. While in exile French King Louis XV gave James II his summer palace St. Germaine en Laye as a residence. This estate was managed by the stewards the d’Abbadie St. Germaine family. With all of this in mind it is terribly interesting that Blaise d’Abbadie was captured from the same French Ship as the Chevalier St. George.
Here we have an overlap of two interesting Jacobite characters that may even infer that it was d’Abbadie who was the Chevalier St. George. Here we will also examine other possibilities in the overall scheme of French naval history of this period. It is just as likely that the Chevalier St. George was an Irish or Scottish Jacobite exile that was serving in the French armed forces as this was common at the time. James II “back stairs page” is also an interesting character who may have even been a kind of spy or liason between James II and French nobility.
The d’Abbadie family is also known in association with Jean Vincent d’Abbadie St. Castin the namesake of Castine, Maine. Jean Vincent was an early Acadian military commander who actually became an Abenaki Native American Chief. He and his half Native sons all were just as closely aligned with Native Americans during their time in Acadia and had a huge influence on the development of the region in the late seventeenth to mid eighteen century era. Jean Vincent was even said to have been a Knight of Malta/St. John.
Eventually Jean Vincent’s son Anselme d’Abbadie would return to France to reclaim his title of Baron St. Castin. Anselme also played the role of successful privateer in Nova Scotia and Acadian history. His daughter would eventually marry into the Bourbon family. All of this is illustrative of the great historical legacy of the d’Abbadie family which will become even more impressive in the mid nineteenth century exploits of Antoine and Arnaud d’Abbadie who followed in the footsteps of James Bruce in their exploration of Ethiopia. Antoine would eventually be the builder of Chateau Abbadia near Hendaye. Antoine’s extensive collection of ancient Ethiopian Manuscripts is still housed at Chateau Abbadia today.
It is possible that the Chevalier St. George was part of the d’Anville expedition. In 1747 just one year after the ill-fated expedition during which Jean Baptiste de La Rochefoucauld duc d’Anville lost his life St. George, Admiral Jonquierre, and Blaise d’Abbadie were captured at the Battle of Finesterre by Admiral George Anson of Shugborough Hall and Moor Park. Even though Anson was known to possibly have Jacobite sympathies he stayed loyal to the crown at this time. Anson was also thought to have been a Knight of Malta. Admiral Anson’s name does seem to pop up in studies of curious history from Charleston, South Carolina to the Asian Port of Macao. Anson having captured Blaise d’Abbadie during this battle adds a great deal of additional information with regard to any strange goings on between him and the Chevalier St. George after the Battle of Cape Finnestere. Both St. George and d’Abbadie likely had strong connections to the exiled Jacobite court and peerage of James II and later Bonnie Prince Charlie himself.
Other researchers believe the Stone of Destiny was transferred to Anson at the Battle of Cape Finesterre but those narratives never mention the presence of the Chevalier St. George or Blaise d’Abbadie who was also captured by Anson. These stories attempt to relate another strange tale told by French Canadian explorer La Verendrye to Swedish botanist Pehr Kalm that involved a strange stone recovered from a Sandstone pillar near what is today the United States and Canadian border.
The story of this missing stone was later used by supporters of the theory that the Kensington Rune Stone was authentically Norse though they were also never able to relocate the stone at a later date. Interestingly this story was later repeated by non-other than Alexander Von Humboldt whose name like Admiral Anson’s seems to surface at different places in the saga of the strange history of North America. Unfortunately for those that wish both these stones were ancient in both cases the stones or their resting place was found on the border of French Louisiana indicating they may have simply been boundary markers.
What is being inferred by this version of the story is that the French were bringing something to Acadia which Anson had captured. If this is true then was this unknown item or treasure meant to have been stashed in the money pit that the d’Anville Expedition had possibly created? Or had St. George or Blaise d’Abbadie spilled the beans as to what ever had really happened during the ill-fated d’Anville Expedition? The fact that the French fleet was leaving to travel to Acadia as part of their mission does infer that Anson captured something of importance to the exiled Jacobites but why was it being taken to Acaida if it was so important? Had La Verendrye’s story been simply a tall tale? He is the only source that even stated the existence of such a stone which had in turn been related to a Swedish botanist.
There is no note or suggestion in any historical source that any stone was captured by Anson at this time. What is amazing and documented is the capture of the Chevalier St. George and Blaise d’Abbadie. Interestingly “Chevalier St. George” was also the nickname of James III a.k.a. “the old pretender” son of exiled king James II. James III is too old to have been this “Chevalier St. George.” It is not out of the realm of possibility that an exiled Jacobite Irishman or Scotsman would have used such a name when fighting for the French. St. George is also a common French name so it is possible that Blaise d’Abbadie was indeed the Chevalier St. George. There are lots of components of this story that indicate that the Chevalier St. George was using a alias for his name at this time.
Though we may more readily think that the use of this nickname by James III refers to the Knights Templar it more likely refers to the Order of the Garter whose patron saint is also St. George. It is possible however that this value of St. George as applied in the Order of the Garter did originate with the Knights Templar. During this period of history, it is speculated that the exiled Stewart family had created the Masonic Knights Templar Strict Observance which also valued the image of St. George as did the original order. The original English flag also includes the Cross of St. George.
The exiled Jacobite also had their own version of the Royal Order of the Garter that has many things in common with the original Knights Templar. It is also interesting that this French naval commander had the name Chevalier St. George from a symbolic perspective related to Jacobites. It is easy to assume that some exiled Jacobite military personnel had become part of the French armed Forces beginning in about 1708. The KTSO were likely formed as a kind of intelligence service for the exiled Stewarts in this era. In addition to any possible Jacobite association with the Knights Templar Strict Observance it is also clear that Bonnie Prince Charlie had an association with what may be termed the Swedenborgian Rite of Swedish Freemasonry which also valued the imagery and symbols of the Knights Templar.
Was the Chevalier St. George part of the d’Anville expedition in 1746? A timeline of specific French naval activities may indicate he could have been present at many pivotal points in the story of Shugborough Hall and indeed the saga of the lost Oak Island treasure. There are records that indicate that Blaise d’Abbadie had not been part of the d’Anville expedition though we may still consider him a suspect to have been the mysterious Chevalier.
Though to date it is only confirmed that the Chevalier St. George was at the battle of Cape Finesterre it may be that he was present at other pivotal moments in this story involving the French Navy. Though St. George is a common French name in this era it may have meant that he was one of the many exiled Jacobites from Ireland or Scotland that made their way to the continent after one of the failed rebellions of James II, James III, or Bonnie Prince Charlie. The Jacobite Rebellions actually resulted in many of these exiles becoming members of the French or other European militaries in that time span. Many additional exiles from these rebellions made their way to either Scandinavia or the American Colonies.
This is important because after d’Anville died in Nova Scotia Admiral Jonquierre took over control of the expedition and elected that the entire squadron return to France. The next year Admiral Anson intercepted the outgoing French fleet commanded by Jonquierre at the Battle of Cape Finesterre in 1747 in May just seven months later. The Chevalier St. George was the captain of one of the ships that surrendered and he surrendered to Admiral Anson himself and presented him with his sword. At this time Blaise d’Abbadie was also an officer aboard St. George’s captured ship L’Invincible.
St. George, d’Abbadie and Jonquierre were then kept as a prisoners for a long period. At this time stories developed that St. George was said to have even stayed at Shugborogh Hall with Anson and had even been made a member of a prominent London gentlemen’s club. Some accounts even have them playing the violin together. This battle is what made Anson Lord High Admiral and it is said 300,000 English pounds worth of gold was recovered from the captured French ships. During the battle St. George was said to have packed the cannons with gold coins from his personal treasure after he ran out of ammunition. The treatment of St. George along with what little is known about his activities as a captive are very strange indeed.
Events including him while a captive do seem to indicate that he was of great interest to the English Hanoverian monarchy and to Admiral Anson as well. St George was said to have had an audience with King George II as well as having been made a member of a prominent gentlemen’s club in London at that time. This supports the notion that the Chevalier St. George was either Irish or Scottish and may have even been from a notable family. This is very curious indeed. What tales or stories may have St. George shared with the King or Admiral Anson? Did St. George or d’Abbadie have anything to do with the strange message of the Shepherds Monument and other architectural follies at Shugborough Hall? Some accounts of this tale also have St. George visiting Shugborough Hall! What was he doing there? Is it possible that the Chevalier St. George was Bonnie Prince Charlie himself?
This genteel treatment of St. George is curious. Though Admiral Jonquierre had also been captured there is no record of him being treated in this manner and he was soon released and returned to France. Scant notations as to the activities of d’Abbadie while captured do note that he took the time to examine whatever he could about English Naval operations. Why would they neglect an Admiral and then treat St. George with such honor and courtesy? There is a great deal of information that suggests Admiral Anson had some sympathy for the Jacobite cause even though he was part of their opposition. Part of Anson’s family legacy had sprung from the Earls of Lichfield that included both members of the Stewart ancestors of the exiled Kings and the very same Lee family that would produce Civil War General Robert E. Lee. Admiral Anson is also thought by many to have been a Knight of Malta. It is also possible that Admiral Jonquierre, the Chevalier St. George, and Blaise d’Abbdie were also Knights of St. John of Malta.
What may be important in all of this is the fact that St. George earlier may have been part of the French naval effort to land and then evacuate Bonnie Prince Charlie from Scotland after the failed 1745 Jacobite rebellion. This would have included a great amount of gold that was meant to fund the revolution that has been “missing” ever since. It is possible St. George was present on all three of these naval operations and had told Anson about the treasure on Oak Island left by the d’Anville Expedition in part later resulting in the construction of the Shepherds Monument at Shugborough which in turn led this author to Oak Island? Even if St. George was not present at each of these historical events he may have been privy to their details and importance to the exiled Stewart family. If this version of events is true then it may be that St. George was indeed an Irish or Scottish Jacobite refugee that had joined the French Navy. Previous to his capture Blaise d’Abbadie held a position in the French naval administration that may have also made him privy to the most intimate inner workings of the navy at that time.
This obviously is a theory but in fact the all three of these naval operations including the d’Anville Expedition, The Battle of Cape Finesterre, and Bonnie Prince Charlie’s Jacobite invasion and later escape all include large amounts of gold specie that was either lost or had been recovered by Admiral Anson. Anson in fact had made his original fortune and success based on being the third Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. In the process of his circumnavigation Anson had captured the Spanish Manilla treasure galleon and had made it all the way back to England with the treasure he had captured. It is this money that may have aided him and his brother Thomas in creating many works of architecture and art seen at Shugborough Hall including the Shepherds Monument.
In fact there are several architectural follies present on the grounds of Shugborough hall that may have some hidden meaning to the them. The Shepherds Monument is of interest to many treasure hunters and code crackers. As this story unfolds we will examine how this authors different approach to analyzing the Shepherds Monument does lead to Oak Island. Many people are obsessed with the coded portion of the monument and neglected to properly analyze the artwork present on the piece itself. There is one researcher who did decode the inscription to include the latitude and longitude of Oak Island. The added clue of the possible involvement of the d’Abbadie family may also in many ways link together the mysteries of Oak Island and the Great Cyclic Cross of Hendaye.
Others have also presented this idea in a different way than I did. None of the others noted the Chevalier St. George or the possible influence of Blaise d’Abbadie. My analysis as the monument being a momento mori for Charles I is what led me to the passage in Philip Sidney’s “Arcadia” that resembles the original Oak Island story. Not the coded portion of the Shepherds Monument.
This in turn led to the fact that the Baron of Nova Scotia William Alexander had later amended Sidney’s work with what may be considered Scots imagery referring to Sir James “The Black” Douglas. We are being fed clues here that may also infer there is information related to all of this at Chateau Abbadia in France. Even if Blaise d’Abbadie was not the Chevalier St. George he may have become privy to the entire scheme and may have known of any important relics or historical items that were captured by Anson at the Battle of Cape Finnestere. His family’s close relation to the exiled Jacobite court would have in turn made all of this information available to Bonnie Prince Charlie himself.
It seems possible that if St. George was involved in evacuating Bonnie Prince Charlie from Scotland he could have ended up with gold that could have been later brought to Nova Scotia as part of the d’Anville expedition. Blaise d’Abbdie would have also been privy to this information. Alternately St. George could have been privy to information of treasure if he had assisted Bonnie in his arrival in Scotland for the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion. At this point it is clear that the French navy and Vatican were aiding the Jacobite cause. How did this relate to the political situation in Nova Scotia in 1745?
He in fact may have been bringing this gold to Nova Scotia for James III and Bonnie Prince Charlie as part of their plans to make Nova Scotia part of their domain. Blaise d’Abbadie’s role as an administrator in the French navy prior to his post aboard L’Invincible may have also made him privy to the truth of this mystery coupled with his association with the Comte Maurepaus who was the secretary of the navy at that time. Lakes Maurepas and Ponchartrain near New Orleans are named for this man. Later Blaise d’Abbadie would serve as governor of French Louisiana and would die there. He is entombed at the famous St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans.
As we may see that in addition to Chateau Abbadia this course of reasoning will lead us to one Francis Bannerman builder of “Bannerman’s Castle” on the Hudson River in New York. As it turns out the builder of Chateau Abbadia Antoine d’Abbadie and his brother Arnaud were half Irish from their mother’s Thomson family. So the links here are endless and all point to Jacobite intrigue over the course of a hundred years.
James II great great grand father James I had claimed what is today Nova Scotia for England and had later granted it to the Baron of Nova Scotia William Alexander in 1621. Interestingly the region had also been claimed in Elizabethan times by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583. At that time Gilbert had awarded his friend Philip Sidney what is stated as being “3 million acres” of what Gilbert termed “Norumbega.”
It is no surprise that Sidney, Maine is named for Philip Sidney. This early involvement by Phillip Sidney in the Maritime region of what is today Canada may account for why the original Oak Island folklore resembles a portion of Sidney’s book entitled “Arcadia.” This explains why the imagery of the legend of the Money Pit includes a story similar to one seen in Sidney’s book. The mystery lays in whether this imagery was applied by Sidney himself, the Baron of Nova Scotia William Alexander or some later individual who wished to apply these themes to the folklore of Oak Island. It is clear that Alexander the Baron of Nova Scotia had later amended and edited Sidney’s “Arcadia.”
Just the Chevalier St. George’s name is interesting as part of this overall scheme. Why was he treated so well even meeting with King George during his captivity? His story is very strange. He and Anson were said to even play the violin together and St. George even socialized with Mrs. Anson during his captivity. To the casual observer it does sound as if St. George had even possibly tipped off Anson as to the existence of the Money Pit. It is also entirely possible that Admiral Anson was aware of any secrets at Oak Island from his time as a captain stationed in Charleston South Carolina. This patrols and return to England would have taken him close to Nova Scotia.
If this is true did the English make any clandestine attempts to find out what had been hidden there? Given the French and Jacobite political and family ties it is clear that the French would have or could have assisted the exiled Jacobite monarchs in hiding something important in Nova Scotia. If so did they hide something else in the money pit and use the earlier story of Philip Sidney’s as a kind of veiled reference to what was going on? Or is there more to the story? Records do show that the French fleet that had been intercepted by Anson at the Battle of Cape Finesterre did include supplies for Acadia and that at least some of the ships were bound for Nova Scotia.
Why do so many other researchers ignore the Chevalier St. George story instead suggesting a stone that is never mentioned in any narrative as being what was captured by Admiral Anson at the Battle of Cape Finesterre?
Here we also have a strong link between these events and a member of the storied d’Abbadie family. Other narratives of this chain of events place the importance of the Battle of Cape Finnestere in Admiral Anson having captured the Stone of Destiny from Jonquierre at that time. Why if the French had found such an item in Canada were they then returning it as Jonquierre’s fleet was leaving France prior to the Battle of Cape Finesterre and not arriving in France? None of that story makes any sense at all. It makes more sense that they were bringing gold to Acadia to aid their efforts there or to aid the efforts of the Jacobites and Bonnie Prince Charlie as they had done in the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion.
Could it be that the Shepherd’s monument is actually relating a story that was told by the Chevalier St. George to Admiral Anson? Though the Admiral was not the person who had created the monument his later family did. If there was a stone were they going to deposit it in the Money Pit? There are many possibilities but this may at least be considered. In fact, this entire story may have nothing to do with Oak Island at all but may simply be illustrative of another strange and unnoted part of history. It is still odd that the same names and families keep surfacing at different points in this story as related to Jacobites and French interests who seemed to have some of the same values.
In fact it may be more telling that the Chevalier St. George, Jonquierre, and d’Abbadie were captured at that time and this is well documented. The Chevalier St. George and Blaise d’Abbadie is who we need to find out more about not an imaginary stone that no one has ever seen except one person (La Verendrye) and only noted by one other (Pehr Kalm). The St. George and d’Abbadie connection may be the actual route of investigation that will blow this thing wide open. Some of this indicates that there is no stone and that portion of the story was told to Swedish Botanist Pehr Kalm on purpose or that even Kalm and Von Humboldt had knowingly spread a false story for intelligence service purposes. It is also amazing that later proponents of the authenticity of the Kensington Rune would try to use La Verendrye’s story as confirmation of their ideas.
Who was the Chevalier St. George? Not to be confused with the later African gentleman violinist who was born in 1745 way too late to play a role here. The use of the name St. George may even infer that this man was English though this is also a popular French name. Was the Chevalier St. George an exiled Jacobite from England or Scotland? It is possible that St. George was actually a member of the Stewart family as he had met with King George who was actually also closely blood related to the exiled Stewarts? Was St. George actually Blaise d’Abbadie? King George was also in effect a Stewart descendant of Elizabeth of Bohemia who was the sister of Charles I. If true all of this is a very interesting link to the exploits of the d’Abbadie family that are also closely related to French Acadia, North America, and any missing treasure or additional mysteries.
The time line would be:
1745(July) Jacobite Rebellion. Did St. George take part in Bonnie’s evacuation from Scotland after the failed rebellion including this great amount of wealth? Did the Chevalier St. George later tell Jacobite or Stewart sympathizer Anson about this treasure? St. George could have also learned this from other naval officers even if he was not there. It is interesting to note that this gold specie brought to Scotland was most likely Spanish coin since they are the ones who donated it to Bonnie at that time. The Catholic Church had also donated a large sum. It fell to the French to deliver it and later recover it from Scotland. This would explain the later presence of British troops on and around Oak Island. Blaise d’Abbadie’s role as a high level administrator in the French navy may have also made him privy to the truth of what ever happened to all of this gold that they had delivered to Scotland.
1746(June-October) - The d’Anville expedition takes place with Doug Crowell’s evidence associating the French with the Money Pit. This expedition could have easily also included the Chevalier St. George. He had not yet been captured by Admiral Anson. It is possible they were bringing Bonnie Prince Charlie’s treasure to Oak Island? Admiral Jonquierre who is later defeated by Anson was also part of this expedition and the Battle of Cape Finesterre. In fact Jonquierre assumed command of the d’Anville Expedition after the duc d’Anville passed away during the trip. Jonquierre is eventually released after the Battle of Cape Finesterre and assumed his governorship of French Canada at that time. Was d’Anville taking Bonnie’s treasure to Nova Scotia and Oak Island? If true then the d’Abbadie family had personal knowledge of Nova Scotia and the rest of the Maritime region via direct family members that were still alive at this time and likely knew Blaise d’Abbadie.
If this is true were they also bringing relics of Charles I to Oak Island along with any possible golden horde? It could also be true that a lost stone that was thought to be part of the original Temple Treasure was part of the story. These items would have been of great symbolic importance, similar to that of a Palladium, to the Jacobites and their French allies at that time. (A Palladium is a civic relic carried into battle to inspire the troops and bless their undertaking. For more on the stone see the work of Louis Buff Parry).
One of the items brought to Oak Island may have included whatever is in the strange reliquary or box seen in the rendering of Poussin’s “The Shepherds of Arcadia” seen on the Shepherds Monument at Shugborough Hall that is not present in the original painting. If this is true then we are seeing a continuation of the French assisting the exiled King James III and his son Bonnie Prince Charlie at that time. We will address why they would bring these things to Nova Scotia a little later in this saga. It is likely that box contained a Palladium as is inferred in Philip Sidney’s literary work “Arcadia.”
1747(May)-The Battle of Cape Finesterre happens and d’Abbadie, Jonquierre, and St. George are captured. St. George had a close relationship with Admiral Anson and this is strange. Did St. George tell Anson of whatever went on during the d’Anville expedition and ’45 Jacobite rebellion and Bonnie Prince Charlie’s treasure? Did St. George tell Anson about the d’Anville expedition and the Money Pit? Even if he was not on the d’Anville expedition he was now a flag officer of Admiral Jonquierre’s fleet who was present on the d’Anville expedition. He and d’Abbadie likewise could have been privy to or part of any naval operations associated with the ’45 Jacobite rebellion of Bonnie Prince Charlie. It may have been in fact the Chevalier St. George who ultimately inspired the production of the mysterious Shepherd’s Monument by one of Admiral Anson’s daughters and family.
In other words the Chevalier St. George, d’Abbadie, and Jonquierre were likely privy to whatever had been hidden at Oak Island. Next they are all captured with St. George even being entertained by Admiral Anson himself. They are all eventually released in a prisoner exchange. Then later Admiral Anson’s niece and husband (daughter of his brother Thomas Anson) built the Shepherds monument that is indeed associated with Oak Island and in many ways leads one to Oak Island.
This is why the Poussin imagery is on the Shepherds Monument i.e. “Et in Arcadia Ego” or In Arcadia I Am. The phrase as interpreted as “In Arcadia I am” is a definite clue pointing one to Nova Scotia also known of as Acadia; French for “Arcadia.” This memento mori to Charles I also references his last words from Philip Sidney’s “Arcadia” and why the story of the Money Pit resembles the one in the book. The crafting of the Money Pit story to resemble this was totally intentional.
All of this adds up to the fact that St. George had told Admiral Anson and his brother Thomas about what ever had gone on with regard to the evacuation of Bonnie Prince Charlie from Scotland after the failed ’45 rebellion and then at Oak Island during the d’Anville expedition.
Jonquierre later returned to Canada and resumes his original post of Governor of French Canada. Even if he knew of a treasure at Oak Island he wouldn’t have been able to easily recover it. The French had also likely agreed that it was in their interest not to recover what belonged to Bonnie Prince Charlie. In addition, maybe by this time they were contemplating what would become the American Revolution. Alternately Jonquierre knew that anything that had been stashed at Oak Island belonged to the Stewart family and this stash may have included personal items or relics associated with Charles I. Of course Nova Scotia was controlled by the English at that time. In this saga they are the last people the exiled Stewarts would have wanted to know about any stash of relics and gold at Oak Island. We do know that the involvement of France in the American Revolution contributed a great deal to the victory over the British. Here we may be exposing some of the deeper connections that helped to cement this alliance.
If even the French considered this Bonnie Prince Charlie’s money they would have left it alone. Is it possible that relics and other items were included in what was being brought to Nova Scotia? Eventually this story may have been known of by upper echelon American Revolutionaries like Washington, Henry Lee, and Thomas Jefferson, and John Allan of Nova Scotia. Indeed, Lee was a direct descendant of Earl of Lichfield Lee and even named his house in Virginia Ditchley after the original Lee estate in England. Lichfield is where Shugborough Hall is and Admiral Anson’s brother would eventually be titled Earl of Lichfield. Earlier in history the very Stewart family of James II, Charles I, and Bonnie Prince Charlie had been Earls of Lichfield. That is why Shugborough Hall is so important in this entire scheme. The Anson’s were aware of this heritage and seemed to admire and value the Stewarts as past kings of their country. Again, this is the family of famous Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
More importantly Continental Army General William Alexander sometimes referred to as Lord Stirling may have had real intimate family knowledge of the truth of Oak Island. After the time of Charles II the Alexander family of the Baron of Nova Scotia had come to the American colonies of Virginia, New Jersey, and New York. General Alexander had returned to Scotland prior to the American Revolution and had been awarded the titles of this ancestor the original Baron of Nova Scotia. The Scottish peerage approved this award of titles though the English found a way to block this naming via legal remedies. Despite this Scottish and American interests continued to refer to General Alexander as “Lord Stirling.”
Of course, the promise of great riches and hordes of relics would be a great story to use to confound your enemy by presenting them with a saga that includes items they may also value. The Stone of Destiny? The Temple Treasure? I’m sure that Admiral Anson enjoyed the fact that anyone questing for such items may find themselves a student of the art of navigation. The entire story could possibly have been a ploy by the French to convince the English that they now possessed items like the Stone of Destiny or relics of Charles I or Mary Queen of Scots. Or had the English and loyalist Scots been behind all this to confound the French? It could go either way yet it is clear that prominent Jacobite figures surface too often in this story for there not to a relation between said events and that sentiment.
So in a very real way this version of events also illustrates how people and families more associated with American history may have been part of the Money Pit and Nova Scotia historical stories. The artwork and architectural follies of Shugborough Hall also illustrate a distinct family tradition at play in which a small hidden history adds to the prestige and influence of this storied family. This is something they would have valued very much in both a symbolic and real way. They were privy to a very inside secret and had left clues in the form of the Shepherds Monument and other follies on their estate to lead one to the truth. For instance, were people like Robert E. Lee or Thomas Jefferson privy to the truth of these stories? Had they later created their own versions of these lost stone and treasure stories? The Beale Treasure perhaps?
All of this adds up to the fact that the Chevalier St. George is a figure in the middle of this story that had the potential to link it all together into an understandable and coherent story as opposed to the bits and pieces we are generally left to muddle over. In addition Blaise d’Abbadie also held a family legacy that may have linked him with Jacobite concerns as well as the mysteries of Abbadia and the Great Cyclic Cross of Hendaye. Blaise may have known about the cross as two examples of the same cross pre-date his birth. If these things were icons of a family tradition linked to the Basque culture than Blaise would have been aware of this. Blaise d’Abbadie was from Audaux (Pyrenees-Atlantiques), France just a short distance west of Hendaye and not far from Sare, France where another similar strange cross is located. Audaux is also the original home of Ethiopian explorer Antoine d’Abaddie who created the Rosslyn Chapel of France Chateau Abbadia.
To me this also means there may be a big clue present at the Anson family crypt nearby Shugborough Hall. The Shepherds Monument actually “points to” the family crypt of Admiral Anson and other family members.
No one else has noted any of this prior to this write up.
Part II: Admiral Anson, Bonnie Prince Charlie, The Vatican, and the Oak Island Treasure. Or the tale of a wonderful maritime painting that tells the story of treasure!!!
Painted by Samuel Scott (1702-1772), the inscription on the lining canvas, 'Action on the 9th of July 1745 between the Lion of 60 guns, Captain Percy Brett / and the Elisabeth of 64 guns, the Doutelle in the distance making / her escape with the Pretender on board. / Painted for Admiral Lord Anson'. Oil on canvas.102.7 x 152.3 cm (401/2 x 60 in).”
Why would the Vatican be interested in the Oak Island treasure? The answer to this is very complex but may boil down to the Catholic sensibilities of the exiled Stewart family and their Catholic faith.
Shugborough Hall in England is home to several pieces of interesting artwork, architecture and sculpture. The influence of Admiral George Anson and his brother are central to many of the themes of interesting pieces there such as the famous Shepherds Monument. Many mystery lovers value the Shepherds Monument for the strange inscription that is included that many insist is a code that may lead to some hidden aspect of history. Some researchers even link this code to the famous Oak Island Treasure. Admiral Anson and his brother Thomas were also associates of Sir Francis Dashwood and had likely attended his famous “Hellfire Club” at Dashwood’s West Wycombe estate. West Wycombe is also home to architectural follies that reproduce the Tower of the Winds of Athens and the hexagonal forecourt of Baalbek. There is also a monument very similar to the Shepherds Monument at Dashwood’s West Wycombe estate.
As discussed earlier the artistic theme of the Shepherd’s monument indicates that it was meant as a momento mori for beheaded King Charles I whose last words were from Philip Sidney’s “Arcadia.” Included in the same book by Sidney is a story frighteningly similar to the Oak Island folklore of the Money Pit. Given this it is also amazing that Sidney was also awarded claims to Nova Scotia and Maine by his friend Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Gilbert had claimed the region in 1584 during a trip to St. John’s Newfoundland. Some narratives of his voyage also have him briefly visiting what would become Nova Scotia though this is somewhat uncertain.
If the Anson’s knew about the Money Pit could this help us to determine what is hidden at Oak Island even prior to finding anything? Possibly.
Admiral Anson himself was in a position to have captured many treasures during his naval career. He is known to have captured the Manilla Treasure Galleon during his circumnavigation as well as an addition large treasure at the Battle of Cape Finesterre off of Northern Spain. His position as Lord High Admiral would have also included intelligence as to when certain French ships were coming and going from port. Is it possible Anson knew that Bonnie Prince Charlie would be going to Scotland for the ’45 Jacobite Rebellion beforehand? If so had he planned on intercepting the Prince as well as any treasure he was taking to Scotland to fund the revolution?
We in fact may have an interesting clue coming from Admiral Anson that has been overlooked by many others. In order to understand this, we will look into the chain of events leading up to Bonnie Prince Charlie’s invasion of Scotland otherwise known as the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion often referred to as the “’45.” Note that Jacobites were so named for two of the exiled Kings being named James II and James III. This name also includes the overtones of the crypt of St. James at Santiago de Compostela. Ultimately all English monarchs that were named James took this moniker as inspired by James apostle of Christ. This makes sense as the exiled Kings were all Catholic and had a strong association with the Vatican.
In June of 1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie set out to invade Scotland using two vessels to facilitate his voyage there; one owned by a French Privateer named Antoine Walsh the other owned by France. Walsh was from a long line of Irish Walsh family members that had been exiled in France starting with the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s grandfather King James II. In fact it is remotely possible that Walsh or another exile like him is who we later come to know as “The Chevalier St. George.”
Two of Walsh’s ships the le Du Teillay and the larger Elisabeth were used to clandestinely bring Bonnie Prince Charlie to the west coast of Scotland to kick off the ’45 rebellion. The ship Elisabeth had actually been donated by the French to this cause and was not owned by Walsh as the Du Teillay was. During the trip the smaller and faster Du Teillay was to carry Bonnie Prince Charlie and some of his staff while the Elisabeth was to carry one hundred Marines that had been supplied by exiled Lord Clare as well as a number of muskets and broadswords. In this story the Elisabeth also was carrying any gold specie that Bonnie Prince Charlie was bringing to Scotland at that time.
It is interesting that Bonnie’s expedition to regain his land and crown had been funded not by the French but by Spain and the Vatican. The French had supplied some material support in the form of the ship Elisabeth but Spain and the Vatican had pledged 400,000 gold livres a month towards the success of this rebellion. This is not surprising as the Vatican had not been pleased that their supporters the exiled Stewart Kings were ardent Catholics and had supported the Holy See in many ways when they held the Crowns of England, Ireland, and Scotland. Via a chain of events in this story we will come to understand that all or some of this gold was supposed to have been carried to Scotland aboard the ship Elisabeth. This also leads us to a rationale as to why the Vatican would be interested in Oak Island.
As the voyage progressed the two ships found themselves attacked by the English naval vessel “The Lion” commanded by captain Brett.
“The engagement depicted in this painting took place on 9 July 1745, and was described as follows: the French man-of-war the Elisabeth (64 guns), carrying arms men to Scotland and escorting the Sloop Du Theilly (La Doutelle) with the Young Pretender on board, was sighted by Captain Percy Brett in the Lion (60 guns), off the Lizard at four o'clock. Captain Brett made four drawings illustrating the successive stages of the encounter, and this picture is based on that of the final phase (in the Sandwich collection, Kingzett, op. cit. pl. 9a). The Elisabeth had seized the opportunity of a shift in the wind's direction to escape, and the Lion, much damaged and powerless to pursue, is seen firing a last raking volley.”
(Note: Lord Sandwich was a member of Dashwood’s Hellfire Club and Dillitante Society).
“After the action was over, Captain Walsh bore up to the Elisabeth to ascertain the state of matters, and was informed by a lieutenant of the severe loss she had sustained in officers and men, and the crippled state she was in. He, however, offered to pursue the voyage if supplied with a main-mast and some rigging, but Walsh had no spare materials; and after intimating that he would endeavour to finish the voyage himself, and advising the commander of the Elisabeth to return to France, both ships parted, the Elisabeth on her way back to France, and the Doutelle on her voyage to the Western Highlands.”
Via the Jacobite peerage we later learn that Bonnie Prince Charlie arrived in Scotland without any money or weapons as they had all returned to France aboard the damaged ship Elisabeth:
Ranald MacDonald was of course kin to the later builder of a castle on the Hudson River Francis Bannerman IV who was an established military surplus and arms dealer in mid nineteenth century New York City. So this is an interesting connection to Francis Bannerman who had built a bizarre replica of a Scottish Castle on Pollipel Island in the Hudson River in New York. Pollipel Island is just upstream from West Point, New York. It is interesting that he is one to note that Bonnie had arrived without any weapons or money. Note that the above source from the Jacobite Peerage states that Macdonald was educated at St. Germane en Laye the summer estate of Louis XV that had been given to exiled Jacobite King James II where of course Bonnie Prince Charlie also lived for an extended period.
(Note: At some point in the future I will also explain how the famous mystic the Comte St. Germaine may have also been involved in Jacobite and exiled Stewart intrigue).
So now we know that a large amount of gold that was supposed to have come to Scotland with Bonnie Prince Charlie in July of 1745 never made it there and was returned to France aboard the Elisabeth at that time. Is it possible that this gold was later brought by the duc d’Anville to Oak Island to hide it for Bonnie and the Jacobite cause? Could this indicate that part of the Jacobite plan was to establish a new country in Nova Scotia which undoubtedly, they considered part of their domain? Indeed the exiled Stewart monarchy would have also viewed the American colonies as their property as well. It is possible that Nova Scotia was meant to be a Jacobite state that also included their French allies.
The timeline of the events including the ’45 Jacobite Rebellion, the d’Anville Expedition and the Battle of Cape Finesterre all support that this could indeed be true. There are many hints and suggestions that the exiled Stewarts viewed all the colonies as their property as their family had claimed and developed them in many ways. They may have seen that coopting the colonies including Nova Scotia would be an easier task then regaining England, Scotland, and Ireland. It was for these reasons that Jacobite and French interests would later support the American Revolution.
The monies captured at the Battle of Cape Finesterre by Admiral Anson were said to total 300,000 English pounds worth of gold. This had been taken from Admiral Jonquierre who in fact had taken over control of the d’Anville Expedition after the duke met his untimely end in Nova Scotia. Jonquierre had been present at two of the pivotal points in this saga. It is also possible that the Chevalier St. George has also been present at these battles and may have even been Antoine Walsh or another Scots Jacobite exile. We know now that Blaise d’Abbadie was also present on the same ship as St. George and was also captured.
In fact it is remotely possible that Admiral Anson had been to Oak Island as early as the 1730’s. At that time Anson was a British naval captain that was stationed in Charleston, South Carolina and had patrolled the waters of the East Coast for Spanish and French targets. He may have sailed near Oak Island several times during this seven year period including trips to and from England. It is more likely that an English ship would go to Oak Island only on the return voyage.
It is almost too much of a coincidence that “Chevalier St. George” was also the nickname of exiled Jacobite King James III son of James II the original exile. As we see these Jacobites in France even had their own peerage of awarded titles and had even formed a Jacobite Order of the Garter which coincidentally includes the symbols of St. George just as the fabled Knights Templar valued these symbols. During this period Bonnie Prince Charlie did have an illegitimate child with his first cousin Marie Louise de La Tour d’Auvergne. There is a distant slim chance that this illegitimate issue of Bonnie and Marie Louise was indeed the Chevalier St. George. Marie of course is also closely related to both Claude and Charles de La Tour of which Charles was an early French Acadian Governor.
In fact there are other significant relations between the de La Tour and Stewart families one of which even involves Rosslyn Chapel and the family of its builder William Sinclair the first Earl of Caithness. These connections may help to explain just why the bogus narrative of Henry Sinclair as a Knights Templar had come to Nova Scotia at an early date not recorded in North American history. Here we do have a very real story linking Rosslyn Chapel to Nova Scotia as well as two families that did have direct ties to not only the fabled Knights Templar but also to the development of American and Canadian history.
William Sinclair (1410-1484) the first Earl of Caithness and last Sinclair Earl of Orkney built Rosslyn Chapel. One of William Sinclair’s daughters Catherine married Alexander Stewart (1454-1485) the Duke of Albany and they had issue. After Catherine’s passing the Duke of Albany married a woman named Anne de La Tour d’Auvergne with whom he also had children including the next Duke of Albany John Stewart. John Stewart the Duke of Albany married a woman also named Anne de La Tour d’Auvergne. It is no coincidence that later in history Bonnie Prince Charlie would style his daughter Charlotte as the Duchess of Albany in the Jacobite peerage.
So it appears Bonnie Prince Charlie was closely related to people who had once been governors of French Acadia. Bonnie even had an affair with his own first cousin Marie Louise from the very same de La Tour d’Auvergne family! This explains why both Charles de La Tour and his father Claude were awarded Baronetcies of Nova Scotia by the Baron of Nova Scotia Sir William Alexander who had also amended Philip Sidney’s literary work entitled “Arcadia” that seems to include a story very similar to the original Oak Island folklore.
Obviously, Charles I and William Alexander were aware of Charles and Claude’s relation to their direct family members including elements of the de La Tour family itself. The de La Tour family of France were also later related to both the Rochefoucauld and Lafayette families that helped to support the American Revolution in many ways. The Legend of Henry Sinclair coming to Nova Scotia may be a direct result of these family relations. These people would have had a great desire to link their family legacy to that of Nova Scotia.
In fact this relation between Dukes of Albany and their half-brother Alexander Stewart son of the first duke and Bishop of Moray could reveal some hidden aspects of Nova Scotia history. Among these “hidden” aspects may be the reason the entire legend of William Sinclair’s forebear Henry Sinclair having come to Nova Scotia was ever developed in the first place. This story could have easily come via the Stewart, de La Tour, and Sinclair family relations that are reference in many different stories similar to those of Oak Island and the Newport Tower. It is also possible that the North American imagery some see at Rosslyn Chapel is a result of the Norse Sagas and the Sinclair’s family links to Norwegian Royalty.
In fact the story of Henry Sinclair and Nova Scotia in many ways solidly links to the involvement of the Stewart family whether it was ruled by French or English interests. Either way they had a family “in” in Nova Scotia or Acadia. These connections may also indicate why a legend such as that of Henry Sinclair was developed in the first place as a rationale as to why the exiled Stewarts felt that they “owned” Nova Scotia even though they had been deposed officially as monarchs by their own country. The Stewarts may have been looking to their Sinclair relatives and the Norse Sagas to rationalize their claim to North America. Given this we may need a better source than the Zeno Narrative to prove that Henry Sinclair ever ventured to Nova Scotia at all. This notion does make some sense but somewhere out there may be evidence or information that would prove this in a more solid manner. Another possibility would involve a reason they didn’t want the truth of this notion to be revealed and had simply made up a story to vouch for their cultural and physical claims to Nova Scotia.
Now if we break this down to the most intriguing component we can’t ignore the fact that Admiral Anson had commissioned a painting of the naval engagement between the English ship Lion against the French ships du Thiellay and Elisabeth. Why had Admiral Anson done this? Here we have a very wealthy Admiral in the English Navy commissioning a painting that shows one of his ship’s attacking someone in the form of Bonnie Prince Charlie whom he may have had some admiration for even though he was from the opposing side. The Anson’s including the Admiral were all antiquarians who had a strong appreciation for art and whose family had later produced the Shepherds Monument in reverence for Bonnie’s direct forebear and grandfather of James II; Charles I. Is it possible Anson was sending us a secret message via his production of this painting? It is clear that Anson himself may have been distantly related to the earlier Stewart Earls of Lichfield. It is clear that the artwork and landscaping of Shugborough Hall may constitute a mystery school path of learning with regard to this hidden history.
There is no indication that the English were even aware Bonnie Prince Charlie was aboard either of these ships. It is possible that Anson later became aware of this and had commissioned the paintings as a result of the sketches of the battle that his friend Lord Sandwich had possessed. On the other hand, it is odd that the Admiral would have chosen to illustrate such a minor naval engagement unless he knew there was some hidden significance to this event. At what point did Anson realize that Bonnie Prince Charlie was aboard one of these ships compelling him to commission the painting?
So our earlier analysis of the Shepherds Monument is that it is a momento mori to Charles I and is designed to lead one to Oak Island. In a very real way this painting of these ships may also be a clue that leads one to Oak Island. It is entirely possible that the treasure aboard the ship Elisabeth was later brought to Nova Scotia as part of the d’Anville Expedition. It is possible that if one studies the history surrounding the Shepherds Monument including the Anson and Stewart families that these two pieces of art could indicate that something had been brought to Oak Island including this treasure and other relics associated with Charles I and earlier members of the Stewart family like Mary Queen of Scots herself whom also had been beheaded for very similar reasons to her grandson Charles I.
Both of them were Catholic and both had had a great deal of trouble dealing with the Parliamentarian regimes as defined in England at that time. Mary Queen of Scots with Queen Elizabeth and Charles I with the parliamentarian regime during his era. Items associated with both of these monarchs may be viewed as being representative of a Palladium or sacred relic carried into battle for protection. These items would have been of great symbolic value to the Jacobite and Stewart cause. Their importance may have compelled them to attempt to hide them somewhere in their North American dominions. Some of these items may have been stored in a reliquary very similar to the strange casket that adorns the Shepherds Monument at Shugborough that is not present in the original Poussin rendering. It is possible that these items were moved from time to time or that others had attempted to recover them from the Money Pit on Oak Island.
The Anson family via their artwork and architecture were indeed telling an age-old story that does seem to include knowledge of the truth of Oak Island and beyond. In fact many strange historical mysteries in America may indeed be linked to this phenomena of the Stewart family.
Stories like that of Bannerman’s Island, The Newport Tower, and the Bruton Vault of Williamsburg all may have been crafted in part so these exiled kings and their history would not be forgotten. None of this means that real treasures were not left or hidden for us to find but in the process a true treasure of neglected history is exposed that would otherwise be missed. It is clear that the entire life story and legacy of one Francis Bannerman does seem to reflect these Scots Jacobite and American ideals. What we are being told via this chain of events is that through this storied history that there was and still are people who are aware of the location of any items as discussed here.
Note also that there are indications in this story that may relate to the real reasons Francis Bannerman IV would have built a castle on the Hudson River then also have created a kind of mystery school quest to teach his own family and others of this history. In the process, it appears his gentleman’s prank or learning tool has been subsequently presented to the public as being much more ancient in origin than it really is. In the process of people viewing it as an older manifestation many misunderstandings have surfaced that may all be explained by viewing what Bannerman left as a tenet of mid nineteenth century American history meant to tell an older tale which included the rich heritage of his family and the Jacobite cause.
Had Francis Bannerman actually been the person who had created the Cremona Document in the late nineteenth century era after to Civil War? Had the original Knights Templar been involved in any of this? It may be that what Bannerman had created was right in line with convincing us that the Newport Tower and Oak Island could be associated with his family and the Knights Templar. It appears as if at a later date some modern researchers or hucksters had figured some of this out and had added many elements to the story that must be weeded though to separate them from what Bannerman alone had done prior.
It is entirely possible that over time other family members who were aware of the truth of this hidden history had left other quests or clues to fill people in on the story. Any seeker in this realm may have traditionally been prompted to figure these things out. Some of the prompting may have included legends like that of the Money Pit, the Bruton Vault, or Beale Treasure story. Any number of fake documents and relics may have also been produced to prod one along via this path of initiation or learning. In the process, many searchers have been led down wrong rabbit holes or had manipulated the facts in order to promote themselves or their ideas as follies of popular history. All of these historical tenets do in fact add up to a good yarn that can be distorted and manipulated in many ways.
This indeed does extend to the Vatican or Catholic interests even if some of these people were not Catholics. Only about 20 percent of Jacobites were Catholic. The other eighty percent were comprised of people who simply thought that this bloodline by law are the ones that should be king. In addition, many of the protestant Jacobites were from families that benefitted from the Stewarts being in power via military contracts or businesses that supported their regime.
As time went on and the American Revolution occurred Bonnie Prince Charlie was growing older. Eventually the exiled Stewarts found themselves not as welcome in France as they had traditionally been. At this point they moved to Rome and became closely associated with the Vatican and Catholic Church. Via this association the Stewart’s may have shared their secrets of these clandestine mysteries that may have included fortunes in gold and important relics the Church would also value in a big way. As the story goes it was indeed Spain and the Vatican that had supplied Bonnie Prince Charlie with funds for his rebellion. Charles I and Mary Queen of Scots for instance were both said to have owned extensive collections of relics the Church may have also valued.
Given all of this it is very interesting that after the Revolutionary War there was a very real and viable movement to make Bonnie Prince Charlie “King of America.” This idea was supported by John Adams and Senator Gorham. Ultimately the influence of Thomas Jefferson but the kabash on this bad idea. In the end Bonnie, as well as James II and James III lie at rest beneath St. Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican. The Vatican as well includes an extensive sculpted memorial to these men. Coincidentally King George was one of the subscribers that helped to create this monument even. Even though he had taken his cousin’s place they were all direct members of the Stewart family stemming from Mary Queen of Scots.
Why do many people associate the Knights Templar with what seems to be from this perspective a story about the deposition of the Stewart Kings and later the American Revolution? The answer again lays within the story of the Stewart family and their relations to other storied families such as the de La Tours and Sinclair’s. The exiled Stewart family viewed what is today the United States and Canada as their domain. In this context Nova Scotia held a special place in their hearts as their entire family had originally developed in Scotland.
Though the Knights Templar were not brought to Scotland by the Stewart or Sinclair family it is clear that members of the early Stewart family were among their most ardent supporters. Alan Fitzalan one of the forebears of the Stewarts prior to them even assuming this name was known to be among one of the greatest supporters of the Templars in Scotland. Alan and other Stewarts held the title of the Earl of Mentieth among others in this 12th century time frame.
Given what we have learned about how the de La Tours, Sinclair’s, and Stewart’s were all related to each other via various means we can begin to see how this family group would value the Knights Templar. The Stewart family had patronized and supported the Knights Templar but it would fall on their Sinclair relatives to be more associated with the Templars in popular notions such as the Legend of Henry Sinclair coming to Nova Scotia. With this in mind we must consider that there is no record of any member of the Sinclair family ever having been a member of the Knights Templar.
It is true that many current authors suggest a kind of continuation of the Templar ideal and this is why Henry Sinclair was a Knights Templar. Given Henry’s later family we can see how this may be true via their associations with the Stewarts and de La Tours but even that did not happen until the mid-fifteenth century over two hundred years after the dissolution of the legendary Knights Templar. The Stewarts affinity for the Knights Templar may also be viewed in their possible creation of a Masonic organization in France known of as the Knights Templar Strict Observance. This order was supposedly ran by “unknown and unseen masters” which may point directly to the exiled Stewarts and their Jacobite supporters.
Given all of these we are in my opinion left to search for some lost or hidden information that may support the notion of a voyage by Henry Sinclair to Nova Scotia in the late fourteenth century. Using a source like the Zeno narrative to prove this is no better than the more modern Cremona Document or any other of a number of fake stories that have their roots more in the minds of the modern popular authors who espouse these theories based on shaky evidence and wishful thinking. Indeed later manifestations of these quest legends such as what Francis Bannerman may have created to reveal tenets of history that would be overlooked by following later investigators who seemed to have created additional elements of the story that has further confused things in reality.